Plastics / Product Development / Production

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    •   Material Selection [de] [en]
      •   6.1  Introduction to Material Selection [de] [en]
      •   6.2  Systematic Approach [de] [en]
      •   6.3  Aids for the Selection of Materials [de] [en]
        •   6.3.1  Databases [de] [en]
          •   6.3.1.1  Database CAMPUS/Material Data Center [de] [en]
          •   6.3.1.2  Prospector Database/Ides Inc. [de] [en]
        •   6.3.2  Research [de] [en]
        •   6.3.3  Practical Laboratory Tests [de] [en]
      •   6.4  [de]
      •     Literature Chapter 6 [de]
      •   6.5  [de]
    •   Product Design [de] [en]
        •   7.1.1  Introduction to Design Rules [de] [en]
        •   7.1.2  Rule 1: Design Minimal Wall Thicknesses [de] [en]
        •   7.1.3  Rule 2 Design Identical Wall Thicknesses [de] [en]
        •   7.1.4  Rule 3: Avoid Material Build-Up [de] [en]
        •   7.1.5  Rule 4: Provide Corners and Edges with Radii [de] [en]
        •   7.1.6  Rule 5: Design Ribs to Suit Injection Moulding Process [de] [en]
        •   7.1.7  Rule 6: Avoid Flat Surfaces [de] [en]
        •   7.1.8  Rule 7: Provide Adequate Conicity [de] [en]
        •   7.1.9  Rule 8: Avoid Undercuts [de] [en]
        •   7.1.10  Rule 9: Avoid Unnecessary Precision Machining [de] [en]
        •   7.1.11  Rule 10: Use Maximum Potential of Free Shaping [de] [en]
        •   7.1.12  Rule 11: Consider the Gate Position when Designing a Mould [de] [en]
        •   7.1.13  Rule 12: Provide Metal-Plastic Composites with a Stress-Compensating Design [de] [en]
        •   7.1.14  Rule 13: Design Plastic-Specific Holes and Cores [de] [en]
        •   7.1.15  Rule 14: Design Plastic-Specific Threads [de] [en]
        •   7.1.16  Rule 15: Optimise Moulded Parts to Suit Production Process [de] [en]
        •     Literature Chapter 7.1 [de] [en]
      •   7.2  [de]
      •   7.3  [de]
      •   7.4  [de]
      •   8.1  Dimensioning Parameters [de] [en]
      •   8.2  Dimensioning Strategies [de] [en]
        •   8.2.1  Dimensioning Objectives and Characteristic Features of Plastic Applications [de] [en]
        •   8.2.2  Dimensioning Based on Permissible Stress [de] [en]
          •   8.2.2.1  Strength Value K as a Dimensioning Factor [de] [en]
          •   8.2.2.2  Safety Factors [de] [en]
          •   8.2.2.3  Reduction Factors [de] [en]
        •   8.2.3  Dimensioning Based on Permissible Strain [de] [en]
      •   8.3  Conventional Dimensioning [de]
        •   8.3.1  Application and Limits of Conventional Dimensioning [de] [en]
        •   8.3.2  Area Moments and Section Moduli, Radius of Gyration for Bending and Buckling [de] [en]
        •   8.3.3  Bending of Beams [de] [en]
        •   8.3.4  Torsion [de] [en]
        •   8.3.5  Shear [de] [en]
        •   8.3.6  Internal Pressure Loading of Thin-Walled Containers and Pipes [de] [en]
      •     Literature Chapter 8.1 to 8.3 [de] [en]
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    •   10  [de]
      •   11.1  Tolerance Issues and Causes for Dimensional Variations of Plastic Products [de] [en]
        •   11.1.1  Tabular Overview of Causes for Dimensional Variations of Plastic Products [de] [en]
        •   11.1.2  Causes for Dimensional Variations in the Manufacture of Plastic Products [de] [en]
          •   11.1.2.1  Influence of Material [de] [en]
          •   11.1.2.2  Influence of Design [de] [en]
          •   11.1.2.3  Influence of Tooling [de] [en]
          •   11.1.2.4  Influence of Manufacturing Process [de] [en]
        •   11.1.3  Changes of Dimensions and Geometry of Plastic Applications under Operating Conditions [de] [en]
          •   11.1.3.1  Influence of Temperature [de] [en]
          •   11.1.3.2  Influence of Surrounding Media [de] [en]
          •   11.1.3.3  Influence of Post-Mould Shrinkage [de] [en]
          •   11.1.3.4  Influence of Mechanical Load [de] [en]
          •   11.1.3.5  Influence of Wear [de] [en]
      •   11.2  Tolerance System [de] [en]
        •   11.2.1  Terminology [de] [en]
        •   11.2.2  Important Tolerance Standards for All Materials Including Plastics [de] [en]
          •   11.2.2.1  The Material-Independent ISO System of Tolerances [de] [en]
          •   11.2.2.2  General Tolerances for Metal Parts [de] [en]
      •   11.3  Tolerance Standards for Plastic Products [de] [en]
        •   11.3.1  DIN 16 901 Concerning the Tolerancing of Parts Produced by Injection Moulding. Injection-Compression Moulding, Transfer Moulding and Pressing (Withdrawn by DIN in 2009) [de] [en]
        •   11.3.2  DIN 16742 Moulded Plastic Parts - Tolerances and Acceptance Conditions [de] [en]
        •   11.3.3  Forms for the Use of DIN 16742 [de] [en]
      •     Literature Section 11 [de] [en]
    •   12  Costing [de] [en]
      •   12.1  Calculation of Manufacturing Costs of Injection Moulded Parts [de] [en]
        •   12.1.1  Introduction to Costing [de] [en]
        •   12.1.2  Structure of Manufacturing Costs [de] [en]
        •   12.1.3  Calculation of Purchase Prices Taking Overheads and Profits into Account [de] [en]
        •   12.1.4  [de]
        •   12.1.5  Costing with the Online Costing Tool [de] [en]
          •   12.1.5.1  General Information of the Online Costing Tool [de] [en]
          •   12.1.5.2  Section: General Information [de] [en]
          •   12.1.5.3  Section: Manufacturing Costs of an Injection Moulded Part [de] [en]
          •   12.1.5.4  Section: Overview of Product Costs Including Overheads and Profit [de] [en]
          •   12.1.5.5  Section: Graphical Evaluation [de] [en]
          •   12.1.5.6  Detailed Documentation of Results [de] [en]
      •     Literature Chapter 12 [de] [en]
    •   13  [de]
    •   14  [de]
    •   15  [de]
    •   16  [de]

Material Selection

Dr. Sigrid Brinkmann, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thomas Brinkmann, Hubert Schmid, Andreas Wimmer
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Large material diversity complicates the selection but allows applications which suit the requirements

Updated in December 2015

The selection of the right material plays a key role for the success of a designed component. The great diversity of plastics and their properties which depend to a great extent on applied loads and which are also strongly influenced by temperature and time, together with the various processing options with their influence on moulding properties, make a quick and reliable material selection a complex task for the designer.

Material selection closely linked to the design process

On the other hand, the enormous material diversity and the modification possibilities such as the use of additives, surface coatings and composites, allow a very precise adjustment of the material properties to suit the product requirements. The choice of material affects manufacturing costs, the quality and the functional performance of a product. Material selection is closely linked to the different steps of the design process, from the development contract to the final development and implementation of the product idea.

  • Systematic selection of materials
  • Aids for the selection of materials
  • Overview of material databases 
  • sources for raw material prices
  • Description of selected databases

The following chapters of this section are available in English [en] and German [de].
The other chapters are only available in German.

You have access to the German and English text.

6 Material Selection [de] [en]

6.1 Introduction to Material Selection [de] [en]
6.2 Systematic Approach [de] [en]
6.3 Aids for the Selection of Materials [de] [en]
6.3.1 Databases [de] [en]
6.3.2 Research [de] [en]
6.3.3 Practical Laboratory Tests [de] [en]

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